In this picture released by official website of the office of the Iranian supreme leader on Monday, March 20, 2017, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei sits in a session to deliver his message for the Iranian New Year, Iran.
Khamenei coined the term "resistance economy" to describe measures to make Iran's economy more self-sufficient, in contrast to Rouhani's policy of seeking to open Iran to more global trade and investment.
Rouhani's government has stabilised the economy since taking power in 2013, reducing inflation from 40 per cent to less than 10 per cent and ending global sanctions through a nuclear deal with world powers.
"What has been done is far from the expectations of the people and the supreme leader", Khamenei said.
"The economy of resistance is a general term which is accompanied by production and employment".
In his own New Year message broadcast immediately after Khamenei's, Rouhani defended his government's achievements over the past year including "controlling inflation" and "spurring economic growth and employment".
Khamenei's latest criticism came as a number of prominent political figures, including Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati, the head of a body that selects Iran's supreme leader, also criticised Rouhani for his economic policies. The Iranian presidential campaigns have not yet officially begun, but conservatives are expected to challenge Rouhani in his bid for a second four-year term.
"Mr Rouhani can't expect the Supreme Leader to take his side in the elections".
But while oil sales have rebounded, helping boost growth to more than six percent, the rest of the economy remains largely stagnant.